Haitian Diaspora Federation Chapters in the United States

With an area of 3.8 million sq. miles, a population of 330 million (2020), GDP of  US$21.34 trillion (2019) and per capita of US$ 64,865 (2019), the  United States of America (US) is a  federal republic and a representative federal democracy composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories — American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands — and various possessions. Most of the country is located in central North America between Canada and Mexico.  

Noted history of The US includes 1) Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago;  2) European colonization began in the 16th century; 3) The United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast;  4) American Revolutionary War lasting between 1775 and 1783, leading to independence;  5) expansion across North America throughout the 19th century — gradually acquiring new territories, displacing Native Americans, and admitting new states — spanning the continent until 1848;  6) American Civil War During the second half of the 19th century, leading to the abolition of slavery in the United States;  7) The Spanish–American War and World War I that confirmed the country’s status as a global military power;  8) World War II as a global superpower; first country to develop nuclear weapons and is the only country to have used them in warfare;  9) During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race; 10) 1969 Apollo 11 mission, the spaceflight that first landed humans on the Moon, and world’s sole superpowe at the end of the Cold Wa,11) and collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991; 12) foremost military power in the world, making up more than a third of global military spending and is a leading political, cultural, and scientific force internationally; 13) founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States (OAS), NATO, and other international organizations.  It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council

Noteworthy is the US is a country of immigrants dated back at least 12,000 years ago when the Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland.  However, In the 16th century, the  European colonization  began, displacing Native Americans. Today, they live in Indian reservation, a legal designation for an area of land managed by a federally recognized Indian tribe under the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs.  

With an upward US$21 trillion economy, the United States is a highly developed country and the world’s largest economy by nominal GDP. Despite income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank very high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, median income, median wealth, human development, per capita GDP, and worker productivity.  The US has a diverse economy, to be detailed State by State.  The United States is also the world’s largest importer and the second-largest exporter of goods. This is one area that Haiti should continue to explore more.

Coupled with Education and employment opportunities, the aforementioned attributes attract a large number of Haitians to the US.  Indeed, the long, interwoven history of Haiti and the United States began on the last day of 1698, when French explorer Sieur d’Iberville set out from the island of Saint Domingue (present-day Haiti) to establish a settlement at Biloxi on the Gulf Coast of France’s Louisiana possession.  For most of the eighteenth century, however, only a few black migrants settled there. Haitian migration to the U.S. accelerated in 1779 with the overstay of part of the contingent of Haitian soldiers (free former slaves), who fought for the independence of the United States of America in Savannah, Georgia.  But between the 1790s and 1809, large numbers of Haitians of African descent migrated to Louisiana. Haitian migration to the U.S. continued, netting the US the Haitian-born founder of Chicago — Jean Baptiste Point du Sable — who established a commodity trading post on the riverbank, a precursor to the US stock market. 

Haitian Migration peaks again during the US occupation of Haiti. However, noticeable Haitian migration to the U.S. peaks in the late 1950s.  In 1960, an estimated 5,000 individuals born in Haiti lived in the U.S.  This number continued to grow over the years through family reunification, the boatpeople phenomenon and continued exodus from socio-economic and political violence and instability in Haiti.  

According to Theodat [1] (2006), 2.75 million of haitians live in the US.  However,  the 2010 US. Census indicated that there are an estimated 975,000 people of Haitians in the United States. Critics of the census fault undercount resulting from the exclusion of Haitians’ descendants and non-residents. The census counts Haitians’ descendants as African Americans. However, official 2012 population data indicate that 1.5 percent of the U.S. foreign-born population is Haitian[7]. After the earthquake that killed hundreds of thousands of people in January 2010, TPS designation for Haiti was granted by the Obama’s administration.  Immigrants were deemed eligible if they entered the U.S. up to a year later – so any Haitian immigrant with protected status has been in the U.S. since at least early 2011. According to INS figures, there were about 100,000 unauthorized immigrants from Haiti in the U.S. in 2016 overall, according to the Center’s estimates. U.S. government officials estimate about 46,000 Haitian immigrants had Temporary Protected Status as of 2017, the last time they had to re-register for benefits. Thanks to diaspora and friends interventions, the Trump’s administration attack on TPS beneficiaries sparked open and behind the scene interventions, protests,  and Court interventions.  As a result, the beneficiaries, including their US- born children, are yet to be deported.  However, a battle won does not mean the war is over.

The U.S. Haitian Diaspora also includes any U.S. born 2nd and 3rd generation persons with at least one (1) parent who is a native-born Haitian and whom by the 1987 Constitution[8] are also Haitians.  Hence, the U.S. Haitian Diaspora, which is composed of both Haiti natives and any individual with Haitian ancestry, is believed to be well over 1.2 million. (Reported figure is 2.5 million) American Community Surveys (ACS) from 2008 to 2012 indicate that the Haitian Diaspora in the U.S. is estimated at approximately 954,000 people[9].  However, various stakeholders have argued over the years that US Census data grossly undercount the Haitian population — to date “Haitians” have not been  differentiated as an ethnic group in US census questionnaires.  This uncertainty underlines the need to commission a census, a task the federation is undertaking.  Of note, a typical haitian family has an average of 2-3 childrens. The foregoing propted haitian leaders to quote upwards of 3 millions Haitieans live in the US.

They are in prominent communities of Florida, Louisiana, Georgia, New York and New Jersey Metropolitan Area[10], New England[11] , Chicago, and small pockets in other States and territories.  These pockets and the territories will be grouped under a subchapter of the state or region – Midwest Haitian Diaspora Federation (Indiana, Chicago, Ohio, Michigan) and  Washington Dc Metro Federation (Maryland, Virginia, Washington DC.)  Pockets of Haitians also live in the US territories of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.  For geographic and geopolitical reasons, the US territories subchapters are attached to the Haitian Diaspora Federation of Florida.

 Of note,  a number of these US. Cities and States limit their cooperation with immigration enforcement agents in order to protect low-priority immigrants from deportation. They are known as safe or sanctuary states that include Florida, Louisiana, Georgia, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, California, and Colorado.

Haitian Diaspora in the U.S. actively participate in the public discourse about their host-country and  of the motherland and its future.  Haitian natives who migrated to the United States have reached the highest and most prestigious positions amongst their compatriots from the Diaspora around the World — Patrick Gaspard was National Security Adviser to President Obama.  Scores of others are cited above.  As previously mentioned, major candidates court the Haitian American voters.  And non-Haitians from both political parties are analyzing and attempting to engage with this community’s voters, hoping to reap long-term political gains. 

Nationally, in the September 17, 2016, Miami Herald, Jacqueline Charles, a Haitian-born Emmy Award-winner, wrote that Donald Trump, then a presidential candidate for the Republican Party, held a rally in Miami’s little Haiti to marshal Haitians’ support for his Presidential election bid: 

“I want to be your greatest champion”, then-Candidate Donald Trump told Haitian American voters.

As mentioned previously, Joe Biden, then Vice president  under President  Obama, summoned the federation’s  leadership to The Whitehouse to address Haitian plights. 

And local leaders are also taking note:

There are a lot of Haitian voters; the population is growing”, said Michael Barnett, chairman of the Palm Beach County Republican Party and vice chairman of the Republican Party of Florida.

 “And there is power in that vote”, he added

“This community’s influence is increasing”, concluded Ronald Surin, a vice president of the Haitian American Democratic Club of Broward. 

Still, The Haitian Diaspora in the US still faces challenges — migration,  integration, assimilation, discrimination, heath and economic disparities, relative poverty.  As evidence, the Migration policy institute reported that the Department of Homeland Security deported 1,098 Haitians In 2008 alone.  Indeed, the 2010 earthquake did not slow down the US deportation of Haitians, which is still ongoing today.  Noteworthy is most of the deportations are due to adjudicated crimes.

The question often asked is whether good use is collectively made of this power. However, experts on Haiti’s affairs cited failure of the Haitian  diaspora’s collective engagement as the root-cause. Nonetheless, there is a glance of hope with the basic structures in place that can serve a springboard.  There are one Haitian embassy in Washington, DC  and  9 General consulates — Atlanta, Georgia, Boston, Massachusetts, Chicago, Illinois Miami, Florida, New Orleans, Louisiana, New York, New York, Orlando, Florida, and San Francisco, California —  in the United States, underlining  the presence of significant number of Haitians. However, their involvement with and support to this  diaspora is fluid.  Additionally, Haitians in the US own several small businesses, due to underfunding and lack of expertise.  Further, this community is blessed with several churches and nonprofit Haitian organizations – The Association of Physicians Abroad, The Haitian League, The Haitian Diaspora Federation, and others — but linkage between them is tenuous, leading to dismal  outcome and criticisms to overcome.  

Nonetheless, their scattered engagement is fruitful – passage of the HOPE Bill, TPS, and others.  However, much more remains to be done, underlying the need for collective engagement.

With an area of 163,696 sq. miles, a population of 39.5 million residents, a GDP of  US$3.2 trillion (2019) and per capita of US$70,662 (2019) California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. California shares a border with Oregon to the north, Nevada and Arizona to the east, and the Mexican state of Baja California to the south, Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, and from the redwood and Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state’s center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, and snowy alpine in the mountains. 

California history is marked by 1)  first settled by various Native Californian tribes (Indians)  2) explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; 3) The Spanish Empire then claimed and conquered it;  4) In 1804 it was included in Alta California province, within Spanish New Spain Viceroyalty;  5) the area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War, 6) n 1847, California was controlled (with much difficulty due to deserters leaving to look for gold) by a U.S. Army-appointed military governor and an inadequate force of a little over 600 troops;  7) in 1848, the gold rush started after the finding of extensive gold deposits in California leading to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom8) in 1848 once the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed with Mexico that acquired and paid for the thinly settled future states of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico as well as the independent territory of Texas the newly acquired territories underwent rapid and extensive development; 9) on September 9, 1850, the western portion of Alta California was then organized and admitted as the 31st state; 10) California is diversity and migration and it  integrates foods, languages, and traditions from other areas across the country and around the globe; 11) Soon after statehood in 1850 the state required and paid through taxes for nearly universal elementary school education and three public funded higher education systems — the California State University (founded 1857), the University of California (founded 1868), and the California Community College System (CCCS) founded in 1967 — in the state.  Hollywood, California, is the capital of entertainment of the US.

 California’s economy, with a gross state product of $3.0 trillion, is the largest sub-national economy in the world. As both the most populous US state and one of the most climatologically diverse states, the economy of California is varied, with many sizable sectors. The most dominant of these sectors include finance, business services, government and manufacturing. Much of the economic activity is concentrated in the coastal cities, especially Los Angeles, which has a relative focus on media—most notably Hollywood—and the San Francisco Bay Area, which predominantly concentrates on technology. Both cities, along with other major ports such as San Diego, also act as significant trade hubs to and from the United States. Furthermore, California’s Central Valley is one of the most productive agricultural regions on Earth, growing over half the country’s fruits, vegetables, and nuts. Additionally, its economy is the hippie counterculture, fast food, beach and car culture, the Internet.] California’s economy is very diverse: 58% of it is based on finance, government, real estate services, technology, and professional, scientific, and technical business services,nas is home to three of the world’s ten largest companies by market capitalization and three of the world’s ten richest people. California culture is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, communication, information, innovation, environmentalism, economics, politics, and entertainment

Coupled with employment opportunities, the aforementioned attributes attract a large number of Haitians to California and surrounding States.  According to Los Angeles Times Gariot Louima,  Haitian migration to the west coast United States began in 1957 during the dictatorship of Francois “Papa Doc” Duvalier. According to  Los Angeles Times Gariot Louima,  Haitian migration to the west coast United States began in 1957 during the dictatorship of Francois “Papa Doc” Duvalier.  Within a decade, the number of Haitians in the Los Angeles area had doubled from 5,000 to 10,000 in the 1980s, he wrote in his February 25, 2002  article.

“Rony St. Urbain and his family drive 45 minutes from Chatsworth to Eagle Rock three times a week to attend French-speaking Jehovah’s Witnesses services. St. Urbain and 10,000 other Haitian immigrants in Los Angeles are used to traveling long distances to get together,” he reported.

Resentment is a deterrent that plays a significant role in identifying and organizing  Haitians said Joseph Kesner, a community activist:

“ Tired of being associated with so-called boat people and the practice of voodoo, many Haitians in Southern California have resisted attempts to organize as a community, choosing instead to blend in across the region, he said.

They’re trying to get away from the community”, said Joseph Kesner, 53, a Haitian who moved to Los Angeles from Miami in the early 1980s.

What do they call us in those places?” said Dauphin, speaking of Miami, home to the largest number of Haitians outside Haiti. “They call us ‘boats.’ We are not boats. We are professionals, businesspeople,” added Yolette Dauphin, president and founder of Haiti America Society.

Referring to class warfare – fair skin vs. black shin Haitians, educated vs. uneducated Haitians, poor vs. well to do Haitians — Los Angeles businessman Jordan Salomon,  the great-grandson of one-time Haitian President Lysius Felicite Salomon, who ruled Haiti for nine years, said it may be difficult to organize the Haitian diaspora. 

“I know people that want to do something, but the question is, who will follow?” said Salomon, 32, of Beverly Hills, a Haitian Jew, who grew up in Canada,

Today, the actual number of Haitians in the west coast is not known.  But with descendants and new arrivals, spurred by Haiti 2012 earthquake and subsequent TPS, the number has increased. Indeed in the august 27, 2017 LA Times Cindy Carcamo noted the side effects of  the Trump administration war on immigrants, a constant challenge for Haitians:

In San Diego, Haitians watch the community shrink as countrymen leave for Canada”, he wrote.  

Since shrinking precedes ballooning, the article implies that significant Haitians and descendants live in San Diego and surrounding areas. The number is not known. But, with family reunification and the recent arrivals, community leaders report that upward 50,000 Haitians and dependents live in California and surrounding States. This underlines the need for a census.

Although a safe state, Haitian  migration to California faces constant challenges – migration,  integration, assimilation, discrimination, heath and economic disparities, relative poverty.  Experts on Haiti Affairs fault Haiti’s sustained underdevelopment and the failure of its diaspora’s collective engagement as culprits.  In a glance of hope, though, there are some basic structures in place that can serve a springboard. There is a Haitian consulate in San Francisco, but its support to and cooperation with this diaspora is fluid. There are several Haitian small businesses, but financing and expertise are cited as deterrents. There is no reported Haitian church and there is one Haitian organization as noted above. 

In summary, upward of 50.000 Haitians and descendants live and work in California and surrounding west States. This community faces several challenges but is also blessed with solution-oriented resources – people, diplomatic outlets, nonprofits organizations, including Churches.  However, linkage between them and the greater Haitian diaspora is tenuous.  That leads to dismal  outcome and criticisms to overcome.  Meanwhile this diaspora and Haiti’s challenges continue. The Haitian Diaspora Federation is undertaking the task of connecting the dots for result-oriented collective engagement.

With a 5,543 sq miles area,  population of 3.59 million (2017), GDP of US$230.720 Billion (2016), per capita of US$64,511 (2016), Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United StatesIt is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, New York to the west, and Long Island Sound to the south. Its capital is Hartford and its most populous city is Bridgeport. It is part of New England, although portions of it are often grouped with New York and New Jersey as the tri-state area. The state is named for the Connecticut River which approximately bisects the state. 

Connecticut’s history is marked by 1) was inhabited by multiple (Indian) tribes before European settlement and colonization; 2) first major settlements were established in the 1630s by he Dutch English colony of New Netherland in half of Connecticut;  3) European settlers were Dutchmen who established a small, short-lived settlement called Fort Hoop in Hartford at the confluence of the Park and Connecticut Rivers;  4) Thomas Hooker led a band of followers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and founded the Connecticut Colony; 5) other settlers from Massachusetts founded the Saybrook Colony and the New Haven Colony;  6) The Connecticut and New Haven colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in America; 7) In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a royal charter, making Connecticut a crown colony;  8) Thirteen Colonies which rejected British rule in the American Revolution; 9) influential in development of the US constitution and the federal government of the United States thru the Connecticut Compromise, It is known as the “Constitution State”, the “Nutmeg State”, the “Provisions State”, and the “Land of Steady Habits”;  and 10) The state also has a long history of hosting the financial services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford and hedge funds in Fairfield County; 11)  ranked third in the nation for educational performance with Yale in the forefront —  62 Nobel laureates, one U.S. President, 19 U.S. Supreme Court Justices, Hundreds of members of Congress, many U.S. diplomats, 78 MacArthur Fellows, 247 Rhodes Scholars, and 119 Marshall Scholars

According to the 2010 Census,  Connecticut has the highest per-capita income, Human Development Index, and median household income in the United States. Thirty one (31) living billionaires in the US are from connecticut. The economy of Connecticut is fueled 1)  Finance and insurance — The Hartford, Travelers, Cigna, Aetna, Mass Mutual, People’s United Financial, Royal Bank of Scotland, UBS, Bridgewater Associates, and GE Capital; 2). real estate industry — Realogy and William Raveis Real Estate; 3) Manufacturing — Hartford-based United Technologies Corporation, Stratford’s Lockheed Martin subsidiary Sikorsky AircraftPratt & Whitney, UTC Building and Industrial Systems, Electric Boat division of General Dynamics, and Boehringer Ingelheim, a pharmaceuticals manufacturer with its U.S. headquarters in Ridgefield;  4) gun manufacturing — Colt, Stag, Ruger, and Mossberg and Marlin owned by Remington, closed in April 2011; 5) Culture and  Tourism, generating $14 billion in economic activity and 170,000 jobs annually; and 6) Foxwoods Resort Casino and Mohegan Sun casino on Indian reservations in the eastern part of Connecticut, the state largest employers — about 12,000 people as of 2010; and 6) nursery stock production and agricultural products — dairy products and eggs, tobacco, fish and shellfish, and fruit.

Combined with proximity to New York and employment and education opportunities, these  attributes attract a large number of Haitians to Connecticut. However, the exact number is not known, but several sources estimate that more than 30,000 Haitians and descendants live in Connecticut.  This obviously underlines the need for a census.  In the same vein, an overflow of Haitians from Connecticut also live in the bordering State of Rhode Island.  In the future, a subchapter of the Haitian Diaspora Federation of Connecticut in Rhode Island may be warranted. . 

Although a sanctuary state, Haitian  migration to Connecticut faces constant challenges – migration,  integration, assimilation, discrimination, heath and economic disparities, relative poverty.  Experts on Haiti Affairs fault Haiti’s sustained underdevelopment and the failure of its diaspora’s collective engagement as culprits.  In a glance of hope, though, there are some basic structures in place that can serve a springboard.  The Haitian consulate in New York city services this population. However,  its support to and cooperation with this diaspora is fluid.  There are several Haitian Small businesses, mainly restaurants — Haiti Plus, Metric Bar & Grill, Ronald’s Hatian Cuisine, Jean’s Haitian Cuisine, Chez Coby.  Financing and expertise are cited as deterrents. There are multiple nonprofit organizations –The Haitian Health Foundation , Haitian American Community Center — and several churches — French Speaking Baptist Church, First Haitian Free Methodist Church, First Haitian Baptist of Norwich.

In summary, upward of 30.000 Haitians live and work in connecticut.  This community faces several challenges but is also blessed with solution-oriented resources – people, diplomatic outlets, nonprofits organizations, including Churches.  However, linkage between them and the greater Haitian diaspora is tenuous.  That leads to dismal  outcome and criticisms to overcome.  Meanwhile this diaspora and Haiti’s challenges continue. The Haitian Diaspora Federation is undertaking the task of connecting the dots for result-oriented collective engagement.

With GDP of US$435 billion (2014}, per capita of US$160,472 (2016), estimated population of 702,455 (2018) Washington, D.C., (District of Columbia}, commonly referred to as D.C Washington, is the capital of the United States. Washington, DC. Is an important world political capital.  It is the seat of the United States federal government – The White House, The US Congress, The Supreme Court — and several international organizations — World Bank, Bank of International Development (BID), Organization of American States (OAS) and many others.  The city, located on the Potomac River bordering Maryland and Virginia, is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually. Commuters, including diplomats,  from the surrounding Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia suburbs (DC Metro) raise the city’s daytime population to more than one million during the workweek.

Noted history of Washington, D.C. is tied to its role as the capital of the United States. It includes 1) Originally inhabited by an Algonquian -speaking people known as the Nacotchtank (indians);  2) after the June 1783 American Revolution, States capital was originally located in Philadelphia;  3) President George Washington, the first president and a Founding Father of the United States, selected the District of Columbia along the Potomac River as the seat of government of the newly independent country;  3) the city came under attack during the War of 1812 in an episode known as the Burning of Washington;  4) Upon the government’s return to the capital, it had to manage reconstruction of numerous public buildings, including the White House and the United States Capitol;  5) the McMillan Plan of 1901 helped restore and beautify the downtown core area, including establishing the National Mall, along with numerous monuments and museums; 6) with a high percentage of African Americans, the city was racially segregated starting in1913 until the 1950s;  7) Following World War II, many middle-income whites moved out of the city’s central and eastern sections to newer, affordable suburban housing; 8) the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. in Memphis, Tennessee on April 4, 1968 sparked major riots in chiefly African American neighborhoods east of Rock Creek Park,  9)  Article One, Section 8, of the United States Constitution places the District (which is not a state) under the exclusive legislation of Congress, lacking voting representation;  10) the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961, gave the District representation in the Electoral College;  and 11) 1973 District of Columbia Home Rule Act provided the local government more control of affairs, including direct election of the city council and mayor. 

The Washington Metropolitan Area’s economy is the sixth-largest metropolitan economy.  Its diversified economy is fueled by an increasing percentage of professional and business service jobs — recession-proof 25% employed by a federal governmental agency — many organizations such as law firms, defense contractors, civilian contractors, nonprofit organizations, lobbying firms, trade unions, industry trade groups, and professional associations have their headquarters in or near Washington, D.C., in order to be close to the federal government. The city of Rosslyn, Virginia, located across the Potomac River from D.C., serves as a base of operations for several Fortune 500 companies, due to the building height restrictions in place within the District of Columbia. In 2018, Amazon announced they would build “HQ 2” in the Crystal City neighborhood of Arlington, Virginia. Tourism is Washington’s second-largest industry, with 8.9 million visitors contributing an estimated $4.8 billion to the local economy in 2012. 

The District also hosts nearly 200 foreign embassies and international organizations such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Organization of American States, the Inter-American Development Bank, and the Pan American Health Organization. In 2008, the foreign diplomatic corps in Washington employed about 10,000 people and contributed an estimated $400 million annually to the local economy. The District also has growing non-government-related  industries — Georgetown University, George Washington University, Washington Hospital Center, Children’s National Medical Center and Howard University — in the areas of education, finance, public policy, and scientific research.  And  four of the largest 500 companies in the country are headquartered in the District. 

Coupled with Education and employment opportunities, the aforementioned attributes attract a large number of Haitians to the DC Metro area.  According to the Migration policy institute, among the DC Metro commuters are several hundreds of Haitians, including diplomats.  Washington, DC. Is the springboard of this community.  Today the exact number of Haitians in DC Metro is not known. But several sources put it at upward of 20,000.  This, again, underlines the need for a census. 

Like in other US States, Haitian  migration to DC Metro faces constant challenges –migration,  integration, assimilation, discrimination, heath and economic disparities, relative poverty.  Experts on Haiti Affairs fault Haiti’s sustained underdevelopment and the failure of its diaspora’s collective engagement as culprits.  However, in a glance of hope, there are some basic structures in place that can serve a springboard. There is the Haitian Embassy and consulates services. However, its involvement with and support to the diaspora is fluid.  Additionally, this diaspora owns several small businesses — Marie’s Kitchen,  Haitian food store & Cuisine,  Jojo Fritay, Ole Restaurant & Lounge, C’est Si Bon Pastry & Restaurant. However,  financing and expertise are often cited as deterrents.  There are also several nonprofit organizations and churches.  

 In summary, upward of 20.000 Haitians live and work in DC Metro Georgia.  This community faces several challenges but is also blessed with solution-oriented resources – people, diplomatic outlets, nonprofits organizations, including Churches.  However, linkage between them and the greater Haitian diaspora is tenuous.  That leads to dismal  outcome and criticisms to overcome.  Meanwhile this diaspora and Haiti’s challenges continue. The Haitian Diaspora Federation is undertaking the task of connecting the dots for result-oriented collective engagement.

With an area of 65,755 sq. miles, Population of 21.67 million (2019), GDP of  US$1,039,236.40 (2018), and per  capita of $29,838  (2018), Florida is the southernmost contiguous in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, and the 8th-most densely populated of the U.S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States. The Miami metropolitan area is Florida’s most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state’s capital.  

Noted Florida history includes 1) ihabitted by the Indians for centuries; 2) first European contact made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida (the land of flowers); 3) was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845;  4) Seminole Wars against the Native Americans;  5) racial segregation after the American Civil War. Noteworthy is St. Augustine, Florida, then part of a Spanish colony where Biassou, a former Haitian general, commanded a free black militia out of Fort Matanzas during the US Independence war. Biassou died in his house — Salcedo House on St. George Street – in 1801. 

Florida’s $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. As of September 2018,  Florida’s per capita personal income was $47,684, ranking 26th in the nation and the unemployment rate was 3.5%, ranking as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the state, the 8th highest among all states. Florida is home to 51 of the world’s billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida. the state’s economy relies mainly on tourism, agriculture, and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century. Florida is also renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, and as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in Florida.  A  sanctuary  state,  Florida is blessed with a tropical climate and  proximity to Haiti and the rest of Latin America and Caribbean countries, Including the US territories of Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands.

With added tropical climate, the foregoing attributes are credited for Florida’s attraction to the second largest Haitian Population In US., with New York the first.  As noted above, Haitian  migration to Florida started in 1801. The trend continues with family reunification and visitors’ overstay, but peaks in  the 1960’s with Haitians fleeing the Duvalier dictatorship.  Added is the arrival of the in-transit many haitian workers in the Bahamas,  who  set their eyes onto Florida in the 1970s, taking with them their Bahamian-born as well for new opportunities in the United States. Hence, for a long time, the Bahamas was considered as a step toward U.S. migration. Many of the Boat people intercepted on Florida shores originated from the Archipelago. This and the boat people phenomenon of the late 1970s, throughout the 1980s and the first half of the 1990s, have turned the State of Florida into the Haitian Diaspora Gateway.  According to 2010 census 2010 data 116,818 Haitians) live in Broward County, 122,189 in Dade, 77,85 in Palm Beach county. Scores of others live in central Florida including the Orlando/Tampa area. However, the exact statistics are unknown, underlining the need for a census.  Moreover, Haitians in Florida are very active in the political discourse.  People with Haitian ancestry now hold office in Broward, Palm Beach and Miami-Dade counties.  As mentioned before, national and local major candidates – Haitians and non-Haitians — from both political parties, including candidate Trump, court the region’s Haitian-American voters to reap long-term political gains.

Like in other US States, Haitian  migration to Florida  faces constant challenges – migration,  integration, assimilation, discrimination, heath and economic disparities, relative poverty.  Experts on Haiti Affairs fault Haiti’s sustained underdevelopment and the failure of its diaspora’s collective engagement as culprits.  In a glance of hope, though, there are some basic structures in place that can serve a springboard for mitigation.  There are 2 Haitian consulates (Miami and Orlando) in Florida, underlining the presence of a significant number of Haitians. However, their  involvement with and support to this  diaspora is fluid.  Additionally, Haitian diaspora of Florida  own several small businesses, primarily small restaurants.  Financing and expertise are often cited as deterrents.  There are also several Haitian churches and  nonprofit Haitian organizations in Florida.  

In summary, upward one (1) million Haitians live and work in Florida.  This community faces several challenges but is also blessed with solution-oriented resources – people, diplomatic outlets, nonprofits organizations, including Churches.  However, linkage between them and the greater Haitian diaspora is tenuous.  That leads to dismal  outcome and criticisms to overcome.  Meanwhile this diaspora and Haiti’s challenges continue. The Haitian Diaspora Federation is undertaking the task of connecting the dots for result-oriented collective engagement.

With an area of 59,425 sq. miles, a population of 10.43 million (2017), GDP of US$205.605 billion and per capita of US$43,917, Georgia is a safe or sanctuary state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Georgia is the 24th largest in area and 8th-most populous of the 50 United States.  Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, and to the west by Alabama. The Atlanta metropolitan area, with an estimated population of 5.9 million people in 2018, is the 9th most populous metropolitan area in the United States and contains about 56% of the entire state population. Georgia enjoys a Humid subtropical climate.

The noted history of Georgia includes 1) inhabited by Native American tribes for thousands of years;  2) modest Spanish presence was established in the late 16th century, mostly centered on Catholic mission work; 3) Spanish were largely gone by the early 18th century;  4) English settlers arrived in the 1730s, led by James Oglethorpe; 50 The name “Georgia”, after George II of Great Britain, dates from the creation of this colony; 5) . Slavery was forbidden in the colony, but the ban was overturned in 1749;   6) Slaves numbered 18,000 at the time of the American Revolution;  6) On April 8, 1776, royal officials had been expelled and Georgia’s Provincial Congress issued a constitutional document that served as an interim constitution until adoption of the state Constitution of 1777;  7) The British occupied much of Georgia from 1780 until shortly before the official end of the American Revolution in 1783;  and  8) 750 Haitian freemen fought alongside colonial troops against the British in the Siege of Savannah on Oct. 9, 1779. The contribution of Haitians — a US’ debt to Haiti — to America  is hardly mentioned in History books.

Fueled by agriculture, European Union‘s Free Trade Area, tourism, and a mixed news media environment — CNN and others —  the economy of Georgia is an emerging free market economy.  Its gross domestic product fell sharply following the collapse of the Soviet Union but recovered in the mid-2000s, growing in double digits thanks to the economic and democratic reforms brought by the peaceful Rose Revolution. Georgia continued its economic progress since, “moving from a near-failed state in 2003 to a relatively well-functioning market economy in 2014” In 2007, the World Bank named Georgia the World’s number one economic reformer, and has consistently ranked the country at the top of its ease of doing business index

Coupled with Education and employment opportunities and subtropical climate, and a sanctuary state, the aforementioned attributes attract a large number of Haitians to the Haitian migration to Georgia dates back to 1779 with the overstay of part of the contingent of Haitian soldiers, who fought for the independence of the United States of America in Savannah, Georgia.   Haitian migration in Georgia continues with family reunification and  internal migration from more established communities in New York and Florida. Although the exact number is not known, the Georgia Bulletin estimates that  80,000 Haitians and descendants live in Georgia.  Other sources claim that the number is well over 150,000, especially after Haiti’s 2010 earthquake’s new arrivals. The discrepancies underline the need for a census.  

America has a debt towards Haiti — The Louisiana purchase, 750 Haitian freemen fought alongside colonial troops against the British in the Siege of Savannah on Oct. 9, 1779. Unfortunately, the contribution of Haitians is hardly mentioned in History books.

“ It’s hardly known about at all,” said John Kennington, a historian who works with the Coastal Heritage Society in Savannah.

The above Savannah monument commemorates the contribution of the Chasseurs-Volontaires de Saint-Domingue to the fight for an independent America. One of the few black regiments to fight for the American side in the Revolutionary War, the soldiers were recruited from present-day Haiti, then the French colony of Saint-Domingue. The Rev. Thomas Wenski, head of the Haitian Catholic Center in Miami’s Little Haiti neighborhood, said such history is important for Haitian children struggling for acceptance as immigrants:

“It’s something very important for Haitian kids growing up in the United States to know, Wenski said.

“This is one of the ways for them to have pride in their heritage” he added.

The role of Haitian soldiers in the battle had long been ignored, North Miami Mayor Josaphat Celestin said:

It means recognition for our efforts, that we were here all along, that Haiti was a part of the effort to liberate America and that they came here as free men, not as slaves,” Celestin said.

“We hope this country will recognize this.he added.

Then, maybe the Americans will remember things they seem to have conveniently forgotten,” concluded Laurent, a Haitian historian.

  At the First African Baptist church in Savannah, a storied building that was once a stop on the Underground Railroad, Deacon Raymond Lawrence draws a parallel between the Haitian soldiers’ experience and that of his own ancestors. Rumor has it that the remaining Haitian soldiers participated in the planning and execution of the underground railroad movement to the north, the precursor  of the black freedom movement.

Like in other US States, Haitian  migration to Georgia  faces constant challenges – migration,  integration, assimilation, discrimination, heath and economic disparities, relative poverty.  Experts on Haiti Affairs fault Haiti’s sustained underdevelopment and the failure of its diaspora’s collective engagement as culprits.  In a glance of hope, there are some basic structures in place that can serve a springboard.  There is  one Haitian consulate in Atlanta, underlining the presence of a significant number of Haitians, but its involvement with and support to this  diaspora is fluid.  Additionally, the Haitian diaspora of Georgia own several businesses — Marie’s KitchenHaitian food store & CuisineJojo Fritay, Ole Restaurant & Lounge, C’est Si Bon Pastry & Restaurant, but financing and expertise remain the constant deterrent. There are also the Haitian Institute of Georgia and the Haitian Chamber of Commerce of Georgia. In addition, there are several Haitian churches.  

  In summary, upward of 80.000 Haitians live and work in Georgia.  This community faces several challenges but is also blessed with solution-oriented resources – people, diplomatic outlets, nonprofits organizations, including Churches.  However, linkage between them and the greater Haitian diaspora is tenuous.  That leads to dismal  outcome and criticisms to overcome.  Meanwhile this diaspora and Haiti’s challenges continue. The Haitian Diaspora Federation is undertaking the task of connecting the dots for result-oriented collective engagement.

With an area of Area: 52,271 sq. miles, Population of 4.68 million (2017), GDP of US$205.605 billion and per capita of US$43,917, Louisiana is a State in the Deep South region of the South Central United States.  It is bordered by the state of Texas to the west, Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, and the Gulf of Mexico to the south.  A large part of its eastern boundary is demarcated by the Mississippi River. The state’s capital is Baton Rouge, and its largest city is New Orleans, Mardi Gras and Jazz capital of the US. 

Noted Louisiana history includes 1) inhabited by Native Americans for many millennia;  2) In 1542, Hernando de Soto‘s expedition skirted to the north and west of the state and Gulf of Mexico in 1543;  3) Spanish interest in Louisiana faded away; in the late 17th century, French and French Canadian expeditions, established a foothold on the Mississippi River and Gulf Coast; 4)  in 1682, the French explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle named governor of Louisiana to honor King Louis XIV of France;  5) in 1763, France ceded most of its territory to the east of the Mississippi to Great Britain after Britain’s victory in the Seven Years’ War;  6) in 1800, France’s Napoleon Bonaparte reacquired Louisiana from Spain in the Treaty of San Ildefonso;  7) in 1803, The  United States purchased Louisiana from France, under pressure of the Haiti’s revolution for independence. The slave rebellion in Haiti helped the United States to double its size at a cost of 60 million Francs for 828,000 square miles or 3 cents per acre — a gift to the US from Haiti. 

In the 1700s and 1800s, Louisiana’s economy was based mainly on agriculture — cotton, sugarcane, lumbering. World War II hastened Louisiana’s industrial growth, with an increased labour force engaged in manufacturing. Petroleum and natural gas extraction, hydrocarbons, sulfur, salt-derived chemical production, and added offshore petroleum production boom between 1947-1967. Later in the 20th century, expansion of service opportunities — tourism, retail, and government — helped position Louisiana as the state’s top employer.  With a per capita less than the ¼ of that of Florida, Louisiana’s economic growth has trailed well behind the national average.

Coupled with cultural ties, the aforementioned attributes attract a large number of Haitians to Louisiana. As previously mentioned, the long, interwoven history of Haiti and the United States began on the last day of 1698, when French explorer Sieur d’Iberville set out from the island of Saint Domingue (present-day Haiti) to establish a settlement at Biloxi on the Gulf Coast of France’s Louisiana possession.  In 1793, a catastrophic fire destroyed two-thirds of the principal city, Cap Français (present-day Cap Haïtien), and nearly ten thousand people left the island for good. In the ensuing decades of revolution, foreign invasion, and civil war, thousands more fled the turmoil. Between the 1790 and 1809, large numbers of Haitians of African descent migrated to Louisiana. During the 13-year (1791 -1804) Haitian Revolution,  waves of immigration took place from Saint-Domingue, following a slave rebellion Louisiana was the destination of thousands of refugees fleeing the island’s turmoil. Haitian migration  to Louisiana  peaked after the 1804 Revolution. The revolution in Saint Domingue unleashed a massive multiracial exodus: the French fled with the bonds of peoplebondspeople they managed to keep; so, did numerous free people of color, some of whom were slaveholders themselves. Over the next decade, thousands of migrants landed in Louisiana from the island, including ethnic Europeans, free people of color, and African slaves, some of the latter brought in by each free group.

“During a six-month period in 1809, approximately 10,000 refugees from Saint-Domingue (present day Haiti) arrived at New Orleans, doubling the Crescent City’s population. Approximately one-third of the refugees were white, an additional one-third were free persons of color, and the remaining one-third were slaves (primarily domestic). Most of these refugees established themselves permanently in the Crescent City,” wrote Carl A. Brasseaux.

Many moved eastward to Santo Domingo (present-day Dominican Republic) or to nearby Caribbean islands. Large numbers of immigrants, black and white, found shelter in North America, notably in New York, Baltimore (fifty-three ships landed there in July 1793), Philadelphia, Norfolk, Charleston, and Savannah, as well as in Spanish Florida. Nowhere on the continent, however, did the refugee movement exert as profound an influence as in southern Louisiana. Their activism had profound repercussions on the politics, the culture, the religion, and the racial climate of the state. Indeed during the 2011 New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival – Haiti and New Orleans cultural Crossroads —  it was noted that New Orleans may have inherited Jazz from Haiti. Pierre Clément de Laussat (Governor, 1803) said: “Saint-Domingue was, of all our colonies in the Antilles, the one whose mentality and customs influenced Louisiana the most. The state population in 1900 was 47% African-American: a total of 652,013 citizens. Many in New Orleans were descendants of Creoles of color, the sizable population of free people of color before the Civil War.

Over the years, Haitian migration to Louisiana has increased exponentially, spurred by the 1915  American occupation of Haiti, the exodus during the Duvalier’s regime, the 2010 catastrophic earthquake and family reunification. Today, the exact number is not known. However, community activists estimate that 300,000 Haitians and descendants live in Louisiana. That long list may include Beyoncé. This underlines the need for a census.

Like in other US States, Haitian migration to Louisiana faces constant challenges – migration, integration, assimilation, discrimination, heath and economic disparities, relative poverty. Experts on Haiti Affairs fault Haiti’s sustained underdevelopment and the failure of its diaspora’s collective engagement as culprits. In a glance of hope, though, there are some basic structures in place that can serve a springboard. There is Haitian consulate in New Orleans, however, its support to and cooperation with this diaspora is fluid. There is no reported Haitian business, nonprofit organization nor Church. This, obviously, makes connection difficult but achievable.

In summary, upwards of 300.000 Haitians live and work in Louisiana. This community faces several challenges but is also blessed with solution-oriented resources – people, diplomatic outlets, nonprofits organizations, including Churches. However, linkage between them and the greater Haitian diaspora is tenuous. That leads to dismal  outcome and criticisms to overcome.  Meanwhile this diaspora and Haiti’s challenges continue. The Haitian Diaspora Federation is undertaking the task of connecting the dots for result-oriented collective engagement.

With an area of 10,554 sq. miles, population of 6.86 million (2017), GDP of  US$ 599 Billion ( 2019), and per capita of US$41,794 (2018), Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is  is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, and New York to the west. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, which is also the most populous city in New England. It is home to the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history, academia, and industry

The history of Massachusetts is marked by 1) originally inhabited by (Indian) tribes; 2)  Between 1617 and 1619, 90% of Massachusetts Bay Native Americans killed by virgin soil epidemicssmallpox, measles, influenza, and perhaps leptospirosis 3) 1620, the first English settlers — the Pilgrims — arrived via the Mayflower at Plymouth; 3) 1641, Massachusetts expanded inland significantly, acquiring the Connecticut River Valley settlement of Springfield; 4) 1691, the colonies of Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth were united along with present-day Maine;  5) 1755, the most destructive earthquake in New England occurred;  6) in the 1680s, rebellion under the Dominion of New England and the movement for independence from Great Britain;  7) 1763, French and Indian War ended in led to the Boston Massacre in 1770;  8) 1773,  Boston Tea Party escalated tensions;  9) 1775, outbreak of the American Revolution.  

Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, engineering, higher education (Harvard, MIT), finance, and maritime trade. The economy is fueled by twelve Fortune 500 companies — Liberty Mutual, Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company, TJX Companies, General Electric, Raytheon, American Tower, Global Partners, Thermo Fisher Scientific, State Street Corporation, Biogen, Eversource Energy, and Boston Scientific.  In recent years tourism has played an ever-important role in the state’s economy, with Boston and Cape Cod being the leading destinations. Farming — greenhouse products —  manufacturing  and upwards of 33,000 nonprofits in Massachusetts employ one-sixth of the state’s workforce. Massachusetts had the sixth-largest number of millionaires per capita in the United States.Billionaires living in the state include past and present leaders of local companies such as Fidelity Investments, New Balance, Kraft Group, Boston Scientific.

The aforementioned attributes attract a large number of Haitians to Massachusetts. Haitan Migration to Massachusetts goes back to the American occupation (1915) with the overstay of  students of “well to do Haitians”Haitians”, who came to study. Haitian migration to Massachusetts continued, but exploded in the late 1950s and the early 1960s when scores of Haitians fled the dictatorial regime of François Duvalier (Papa Doc). In  March 2007, New Bostonian Series estimated that there were 41,000 Haitians living in Massachusetts.  Today,  the number has exponentially increased, thanks to Family reunification, the surge after the 2010 earthquake, and the continued instability in Haiti. Masschssets’ Haitian immigrants settled in various parts of Boston, with the highest concentrations in Mattapan, along Blue Hill Avenue, as well as Roxbury, Dorchester, and Hyde Park. However, during the housing boom of the 1980s and the early 1990s, they relocated to the suburbs. Today, it is not uncommon to find pockets of Haitians scattered throughout the South Shore and areas of Lawrence, Lowell, Framingham and Worcester. An overflow is in Maine and Rhode Island.  Surrounding States’ subchapters are envisioned as part of the Haitian diaspora federation of Massachusetts. Today, the number of Haitians in Massachusetts is not known, but community leaders estimate that upwards of  300.000 Haitians and descendants live in Massachusetts. This underlines the need for a census,

Although a sanctuary State, Haitian migration to Massachusetts and surrounding states faces constant challenges – migration,  integration, assimilation, discrimination, heath and economic disparities, relative povertyExperts on Haiti Affairs fault Haiti’s sustained underdevelopment and the failure of its diaspora’s collective engagement as culprits.  In a glance of hope, there are some basic structures in place that can serve a springboard. There is a Haitian consulate in Boston but cooperation with and support to this diaspora is fluid. There are several small businesses, mainly small restaurants.  Financing and lack of expertise are often cited as deterrents.  There are several Haitian nonprofit organizations, including  and Haitian churches,

In summary, upwards of 300.000 Haitians and descendants live and work in Massachusetts and surrounding States. This community faces several challenges but is also blessed with solution-oriented resources – people, diplomatic outlets, nonprofits organizations, including Churches. However, linkage between them and the greater Haitian diaspora is tenuous. That leads to dismal outcome and criticisms to overcome. Meanwhile this diaspora and Haiti’s challenges continue. The Haitian Diaspora Federation is undertaking the task of connecting the dots for result-oriented collective engagement.

Although Haitians are scattered in several US Midwest States – Missouri, Ohio, Kansas, Wisconsin,  Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota — Illinois is the springboard of Midwest’s Haitian migration.  With an  area of 57,915 sq. miles, population of 12.8 million (2017), GDP of US$865,310.4, and per capita of US$54 billion, is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes Regions of the United States. Illinois is bordered by Wisconsin on the north, Kentucky on the south,  Lake Michigan and Indiana on the east, and Iowa and Missouri on the west. Of note, Illinois’s Country, home of the largest European population, is where the French settled lands near the Mississippi River, when the region was part of New France. Illinois is also a  sanctuary State, with a number of prestigious universities. Springfield is The capital of Illinois. The most populous metropolitan areas outside the Chicago area include Metro East — of Greater St. LouisPeoria and Rockford.

Illinois’ noted history includes 1)  American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans;  2) European settlers grew first in the west as the French settled lands near the Mississippi River, then Illinois Country, a part of New France;  3) in 1770, Jean Baptiste Point DuSable, a settler from St Domingue (now Haiti), established a successful commodity trading post, said to be springboard of  today’s revered stock;  4) post American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), The Great Migration (1775–1783),from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state who founded the city’s famous jazz and blues cultures Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city;  5) in 1818, Illinois achieved statehood;  6) in 1871, after the Great Chicago Fire destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, unlike today’s Haiti, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild — construction boom —  with noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, and the steel-framed skyscraper; and 7) three U.S. presidentsAbraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, and Barack Obama — have been elected while living in Illinois.  Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.

With the fifth largest gross domestic product (GDP), the sixth largest population, and the 25th largest land area of all U.S. states. Illinois has been noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. Illinois’ economic base is fueled by natural resources such as coal, timber, and petroleum in the south, immense agricultural productivity, tourism accelerated by its major transportation hub — Chicago’s O’Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world’s busiest airports. Illinois also has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics.

Along with education and employment opportunities, the foregoing attributes attracted a large number of Haitians. As previously mentioned, the history of Haitians in Chicago dates all the way back to 1770 when the first non-native settlers of this swampy corner of Lake Michigan. Jean Baptiste Point DuSable established a successful commodity trading post along the northern bank of the Chicago River near the lakefront. His trading post is said to be the springboard of today’s revered stock market. With family reunification, Haitian migration to Illinois continues, especially during the 1915 US occupation of Haiti. However, Haitian migration to Chicago and surrounding Midwest States exponentially peaked in the late 1950s and the early 1960s when scores of Haitians fled the dictatorial regime of François Duvalier (Papa Doc). A second burst was noted again after the 2010 earthquake.

 At the end of the twentieth century the Haitian Consulate reported approximately 10,000–22,000 Haitians in the Chicago metropolitan area, minus those in surrounding States, Then, these numbers were challenged by Community leaders whose estimates were closer to 30,000–35,000. Although the exact number is not known today, Community leaders estimate upwards of 200.000 live in Illinois alone. This underlines the need for a census. The Illinois’ Haitian immigrants settled in various parts of Chicago, with the highest concentrations in Evanston, However, during the 1980s and the early 1990s, they relocated to the suburbs and other Midwest States. Today, it is not uncommon to find pockets of Haitians scattered throughout Missouri, Ohio, and Mississippi.

Although a sanctuary State, Haitian migration to Illinois and surrounding states faces constant challenges – migration,  integration, assimilation, discrimination, heath and economic disparities, relative poverty. Experts on Haiti Affairs fault Haiti’s sustained underdevelopment and the failure of its diaspora’s collective engagement as culprits. In a glance of hope, though, there are some basic structures in place that can serve a springboard. There is a Haitian consulate in Chicago, but cooperation with and support to this diaspora is fluid. There are several small businesses. Financing and lack of expertise are often cited as deterrents. There are several Haitian nonprofit organizations, including Haitian churches.

In summary, upwards of 200.000 Haitians and descendants are reported to live and work in Illinois and surrounding Midwest States. This community faces several challenges but is also blessed with solution-oriented resources – people, diplomatic outlets, nonprofits organizations, including Churches.  However, linkage between them and the greater Haitian diaspora is tenuous.  That leads to dismal outcome and criticisms to overcome. Meanwhile this diaspora and Haiti’s challenges continue. The Haitian Diaspora Federation is undertaking the task of connecting the dots for result-oriented collective engagement.

With an area of 8,729 sq. miles, population of about 9 million (2017), GDP of  US$639.8 billion (2018) and per capita of $50,577, New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York; on the east, southeast, and south by the Atlantic Ocean; on the west by the Delaware River and Pennsylvania; and on the southwest by Delaware Bay and the State of Delaware. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, making it the most densely populated of the 50 U.S. states. With Trenton being its capital and Newark its biggest city, New Jersey lies completely within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia

New Jersey history is marked by 1) inhabited by Native Americans (indians) for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast; 2)  The Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state in the early 17th century;  3) The English later seized control of the region naming it the Province of New Jersey; 4)  New Jersey was the site of several important battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century;  5) In the 19th century, factories in the cities Camden, Paterson, Newark, Trenton, Jersey City, and Elizabeth (known as the “Big Six), helped drive the Industrial Revolution

The US Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that New Jersey’s gross state product in the fourth quarter of 2018 was $639.8 billion. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U.S. state by median household income as of 2017. It may still be in 2020. As of 2018, New Jersey was home to the highest number of millionaires per capita of all U.S. states. New Jersey’s public school system consistently ranks at or among the top of all fifty U.S. states. In addition to its vast number of prestigious Universities — Princeton, Rutgers — New Jersey is Haiti’s Sister State – an agreement of bilateral cooperation between the two States.

These attributes, coupled with New Jersey’s employment opportunities as a wealthy State and its proximity to New York — are credited for attracting a large population of Haitians.  Others say this result from an overflow from New York.  Nonetheless, the State of New Jersey hosts a large Haitian population. Several sources estimated this number at 80-100, 000, scattered mainly in north Jersey – Newark, Irvington, and East Orange — and south Jersey Asbury Park and Trenton — with small pockets in central Jersey.  However, the exact number is not known, underlying the need for a census.

Like in other US States, Haitian migration to New Jersey faces constant challenges – migration,  integration, assimilation, discrimination, heath and economic disparities, relative poverty.  Experts on Haiti Affairs fault the failure of its diaspora’s collective engagement as culprits. In a glance of hope, though, there are some basic structures in place that can serve a springboard.  There is Haitian consular service in Irvington, NJ, but its support to and cooperation with this diaspora is fluid. There are some small businesses  — Fritaille, Saveur Creole, Woulibam,  Your Daily Baguette,  Mache Laky.  However, financing and expertise are usually cited as a deterrent to their expansion. There are multiple nonprofit organizations, including various Churches – First Haitian Church of God,  Haitian Bethany Baptist Church , Haitian Baptist Church Of Burlington , Bethel Haitian Baptist Church , Haitian Evangelical Baptist Church, Haitian Bethany Baptist Church, Haitian Evangelical Church.

In summary, upward 300,000 Haitians live in New Jersey. This community is blessed with resources – people, businesses, nonprofits, including churches. However, linkage between them and the greater Haitian diaspora is unfortunately tenuous. That leads to dismal  outcome and criticisms to overcome. Meanwhile this diaspora and Haiti’s challenges continue. The Haitian Diaspora Federation is undertaking the task of connecting the dots for result-oriented collective engagement.

New York Bay on Liberty Island, is the home of the most famous immigrant — Lady Liberty —  a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom, democracy, and opportunity.  A centennial gift to the United States from France, she is an international beacon of hope to millions of immigrants. New York is also the epicenter of Haitian migration.

 With an area of 54,556 sq. miles, a population of  19.45 million (2019), GDP of  US$1.7 trillion (2019), and per capita of US$40,272.29 (2004), New York is a Northeastern United States’ state. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont to the east. The state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley. The large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, and the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. The north–south Hudson River Valley and the east–west Mohawk River Valley bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, and Niagara Falls. The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination.  In order to distinguish the state from its city with the same name, it is sometimes referred to as New York State.  Coined the financial capital of USA, New York is home to Wall Street, New York Stock Exchange and many top financial Institutions, 

New York history is marked by 1) inhabited by tribes of Algonquian (Indian) and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years before the  Europeans came to New York;  2) French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing;  3) In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; 4)  The Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany later developed; 5)  England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664;  6) During the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and eventually succeeded in establishing independence; 7) In the 19th century, New York’s development started the Erie Canal, leading to its political and cultural ascendancy;  8)  world’s ten most-visited tourist attractions — Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, and Grand Central Terminal. 9) New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom, democracy, and opportunity; 10) In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, and environmental sustainability; 11) New York’s higher education network comprises approximately 200 colleges and universities — Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and Rockefeller University

With a GDP of US$1.7 trillion, New York’s economy is ranked the largest municipal and regional economy in the United States. Anchored by Wall Street in Lower Manhattan, New York City has been characterized as the world’s premier financial center. It is home to the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ, the world’s two largest stock exchanges by both market capitalization and trading activity. In 2012, the New York metropolitan area generated a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of over US$1.33 trillion with a population of 20.3 million people.The city’s economy accounts for most of the economic activity in both the states of New York and New Jersey, high technology, real estate, insurance, and health care all form the basis of New York City’s economy. The city is also the nation’s most important center for mass media, journalism, and publishing. Also, it is the country’s preeminent arts center. Creative industries such as digital media, advertising, fashion, design and architecture account for a growing share of employment. Madison Avenue is the top global center for the advertising industry. Silicon Alley, centered in Manhattan, has evolved into a metonym for the sphere encompassing the New York City metropolitan region’s high technology industries — Internet, new media, telecommunications, digital media, software development, and biotechnology.  Other sectors include agriculture, transportation, and declining manufacturing.  Dr. Jacques Jiha , a Haitian descent, is the former controller of New York state’s economy and he is the actual controller of New York City.  

Coupled with History, Education and employment opportunities, the foregoing attributes attract a large number of Haitians to New York. Scores of Haitians and descendants live all over the state, but the epicenter is the New York City Metropolitan Area – New York City, Bronx, Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island – hosting the largest Haitian Population In US., with Florida in second place.  Haitian migration to New York began with members of the middle class during the 1920s and 1930s and U.S. occupation established in Harlem and contributed to the Harlem Renaissance. Significant waves followed exponentially during the Duvalier era up to 1986.  

These waves were more heterogeneous than previous ones, as no single class of Haitians was immune from the Duvaliers’ dictatorship. To date, cohorts of Haitians continue to come to New York, many being sent for by relatives already established in New York City.  The largest communities are found in Brooklyn —Flatbush, Crown Heights, East Flatbush, and Canarsie where the legal population is placed at approximately 88,763, and in Queens — Cambria Heights, Queens Village, Springfield Gardens, and Jamaica.– where the number of Haitians is believed to be around 40,000. neighborhoods of Cambria Heights, Queens Village, Springfield Gardens, and Jamaica. Less privileged Haitians settle in the working-class neighborhoods of Rosedale; generally members of the professional community live in the more affluent section of Holliswood, and some move to the adjacent counties of Nassau and Suffolk which are parts of Long Island.  A large segment of Haitian residents also live in the neighboring counties of Westchester — Mt. Vernon — and Rockland Spring Valley.   However, the exact number of Haitians in New York is not known. Noteworthy is various sources estimate  that upward of one million Haitians and descendants live and work in New York.  This underlines the need for a census.

Like in other US States, Haitian  migration to New York faces constant challenges – migration,  integration, assimilation, discrimination, heath and economic disparities, relative poverty. Experts on Haiti Affairs fault Haiti’s sustained underdevelopment and the failure of its diaspora’s collective engagement as culprits.  In a glance of hope, though, there are some basic structures in place that can serve a springboard. There is a Haitian consulate in New York city.  However, its support to and cooperation with this diaspora is fluid.  There are multiple small businesses, but their expansion is hampered by finance and expertise. There are several nonprofit organizations, including various churches.  

In summary, upwards of one million Haitians live and work in Georgia.  This community faces several challenges but is also blessed with solution-oriented resources – people, diplomatic outlets, nonprofits organizations, including Churches.  However, linkage between them and the greater Haitian diaspora is tenuous.  That leads to dismal  outcome and criticisms to overcome.  Meanwhile this diaspora and Haiti’s challenges continue. The Haitian Diaspora Federation is undertaking the task of connecting the dots for result-oriented collective engagement.

 

With an area of 46,055 sq. miles. Population of 12.81 million (2019), GDP of US$803 billion (2018) and per capita ofUS$50,665 (2016), Pennsylvania, officially the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a safe or sanctuary state located in the Northeastern, Great Lakes, Appalachian, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle. The Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, and New Jersey to the east.

Noted history of Pennsylvania includes 1) by 1600 historically inhabited by the Algonquian Lenape (Indian);  2) by the 17th century, both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America: Dutch Zwaanendael Colony in June 3, 1631 Sweden established the New Sweden Christina Colony in 1638;  3) On March 12, 1664, King Charles II of England gave James, Duke of York a grant that incorporated all lands included in the original Virginia Company of Plymouth Grant plus other lands. This grant was in conflict with the Dutch claim for New Netherland, which included parts of today’s Pennsylvania; 4) On June 24, 1664, the Duke of York sold the portion of his large grant that included present-day New Jersey to John Berkeley and George Carteret for a proprietary colony; 5) The British conquest of New Netherland began on August 29, 1664, when New Amsterdam was coerced to surrender while facing cannons on British ships in New York Harbor; 6) on February 28, 1681, Charles II granted a land charter to William Penn to repay a debt;  7) Pennsylvania was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. And the above Philadelphia Independence Hall is where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted. 

Coupled with Education and employment opportunities, the aforementioned attributes attract a large number of Haitians to Pennsylvania. Probably inspired by history, most Haitians in the state of Philadelphia live in Pennsylvania, a New Jersey neighboring city.  However, rumor has it that the Haitian migration to Pennsylvania is an overflow from the States of New York and New jersey. Nonetheless, It is estimated that there are 10,000 to 20,000 Haitians in Philadelphia. However,  the exact number is not known.  In testimony thereof, there are 68 Haitian churches in Philadelphia, underlying the presence of a huge Haitian Christian community. This, by itself, is an indication that the number of Haitians in Pennsylvania is likely to be more than 10-20,000. This underlies the need for a census. 

Like in other US States, Haitian migration to Pennsylvania faces constant challenges – migration, integration, assimilation, discrimination, heath and economic disparities, relative poverty. Experts on Haiti Affairs fault Haiti’s sustained underdevelopment and the failure of its diaspora’s collective engagement as culprits. In a glance of hope, though, there are some basic structures in place that can serve a springboard. There is one known nonprofit organization — The Haitian Professionals of Philadelphia. There are several small businesses, mainly restaurants. Financing and expertise are often cited as deterrents. There is a Haitian consular service in Philadelphia. But, like all the others, its support to and cooperation with this diaspora is fluid.  As previously mentioned, there are 68 Haitian churches in Pennsylvania.

In summary, upward of 20.000 Haitians live and work in Pennsylvania. This community faces several challenges but is also blessed with solution-oriented resources – people, diplomatic outlets, nonprofits organizations, including Churches. However, linkage between them and the greater Haitian diaspora is tenuous. That leads to dismal outcome and criticisms to overcome.  Meanwhile this diaspora and Haiti’s challenges continue. The Haitian Diaspora Federation is undertaking the task of connecting the dots for result-oriented collective engagement.

Sign up for updates from the Haitian Diaspora Federation

powered by MailChimp!

Registration

Forgotten Password?

Website Under Construction

Thank you for visiting The Haitian diaspora Federation. This website is under construction. Please sign up for our newsletter to receive an update when the website is complete and visit us again soon!

Log In